Glossary of Shipping Terms
The following are definitions of shipping terms used in this Form 10-K.
Annual Survey— The inspection of a vessel by a classification society, on behalf of a flag state, that takes place every year.
Ballast Water Treatment System or BWTS— A system used to prevent the spread of harmful aquatic organisms from one region to another by minimizing the uptake and/or discharge of sediments and organisms in the water that ships use as ballast to maintain stability. These systems are required on all ships, according to a timetable of implementation, in accordance with the BWM Convention discussed in the Pollution Control and Liability Requirements section above.
Baltic Exchange—Based in London, the Baltic Exchange is a market for the trading and settlement of physical and derivative contracts. The exchange also publishes daily freight market prices and maritime shipping cost indices, including Baltic Dry Index and segment indices for Capesize, Panamax, Supramax, and Handysize bulk carriers.
Baltic Supramax Index or BSI —The BSI is an index published by the Baltic Exchange which tracks the gross time charter spot value for a Supramax vessel. Initiated in 2005, the BSI was originally based on a 52,000 dwt ship of standard design and 6 trade routes across the world. As a result of a trend toward larger ship sizes and changes to trade patterns, this version of the index was discontinued as of January 31, 2019. The updated BSI is now based on a 58,000 dwt, non-scrubber fitted Supramax and 10 trade routes across the world.
Bareboat Charter—Also known as “demise charter.” Contract or hire of a ship under which the shipowner is usually paid a fixed amount of charter hire rate for a certain period of time during which the charterer is responsible for the operating costs and voyage costs of the vessel as well as arranging for crewing. Such owner is known as the bareboat charterer or the demise charterer.
Bulk Vessels/Carriers—Vessels which are specially designed and built to carry large volumes of cargo in bulk cargo form.
Bunkers—Fuel oil used to power a vessel's engines. The name is derived from the bins used to store coal onboard when ships were powered by coal. There are three main fuel types currently used on commercial cargo ships. First, High Sulfur Fuel Oil (“HSFO”) is a residual fuel with maximum sulfur content of 3.5%. This was the primary fuel used by commercial shipping prior to implementation of the IMO2020 sulfur regulation and continues to be used by scrubber-fitted ships. Second, Very Low Sulfur Fuel Oil (“VLSFO”) is a fuel with maximum sulfur content of 0.5% and is the primary fuel used by non-scrubber fitted ships starting January 1, 2020. Third, Marine Gas Oil (“MGO”) is a distillate product similar to diesel fuel and has a maximum sulfur content of 0.1%. This fuel type is primarily used in ECA zones.
Capesize—A drybulk carrier in excess of 100,000 dwt.
Charter— The hire of a vessel for a specified period of time or to carry a cargo for a fixed fee from a loading port to a discharging port. The contract for a charter is called a charter party.
Charterer— The individual or company hiring a vessel.
Charter Hire Rate— A sum of money paid to the vessel owner by a charterer under a time charter party for the use of a vessel.
Classification Society—An independent organization which certifies that a vessel has been built and maintained in accordance with the rules of such organization and complies with the applicable rules and regulations of the country of such vessel and the international conventions of which that country is a member.
Deadweight Ton or “dwt”—A unit of a vessel's capacity for cargo, fuel oil, stores and crew, measured in metric tons of 1,000 kilograms. A vessel's dwt or total deadweight is the maximum total weight the vessel can carry when loaded to a particular load line.
Demurrage—Additional revenue paid to the shipowner on its Voyage Charters for delays experienced in loading and/or unloading cargo that are not deemed to be the responsibility of the shipowner, calculated in accordance with specific Charter terms.
Despatch —The amount payable by the shipowner if the vessel completes loading or discharging before the allowed loading/unloading time has expired, calculated in accordance with specific charter terms.
Drybulk—Non-liquid cargoes of commodities shipped in an unpackaged state.
Drydocking—The removal of a vessel from the water for inspection and/or repair of submerged parts.
Emission Control Area or “ECA”—Designated sea areas in which stricter airborne emissions controls are in place. As of early 2020, there are four ECA zones in place that cover the Baltic Sea, North Sea, and most of the coastline of U.S., Canada, and U.S. Caribbean territory. Ships operating within these zones have a maximum sulfur emissions limit of 0.1%.
Gross Ton—Unit of 100 cubic feet or 2.831 cubic meters used in arriving at the calculation of gross tonnage.
Handysize—A drybulk carrier having a carrying capacity of up to approximately 40,000 dwt.
Hull—The shell or body of a vessel.
International Maritime Organization or “IMO”—A UN agency that issues international trade standards for shipping.
Intermediate Survey—The inspection of a vessel by a classification society surveyor which takes place between two and three years before and after each Special Survey for such vessel pursuant to the rules of international conventions and classification societies.
ISM Code—The International Management Code for the Safe Operation of Ships and for Pollution Prevention, as adopted by the IMO.
Metric Ton—A ton, unit of measurement equal to 1,000 kilograms.
Light Weight Ton ("lwt")—The actual weight of the ship with no fuel, passengers, cargo, water or stores on board.
Newbuilding—A newly constructed vessel.
OPA—The United States Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (as amended).
Orderbook—A reference to currently placed orders for the construction of vessels (e.g., the Panamax orderbook).
Panamax—A drybulk carrier of approximately 65,000 to 100,000 dwt of maximum length, depth and draft capable of passing fully loaded through the Panama Canal. Ships of this size may occasionally be equipped with onboard cargo handling equipment, but typically do not and must rely on shore-based equipment to load and unload.
Protection and Indemnity Insurance—Insurance obtained through a mutual association formed by shipowners to provide liability insurance protection from large financial loss to one member through contributions towards that loss by all members.
Scrapping—The disposal of old or damaged vessel tonnage by way of sale as scrap metal.
Scrubber or Exhaust Gas Cleaning System — This equipment is used to remove SOx from ship's exhaust gas.
Short-Term Time Charter—A time charter which lasts less than approximately 12 months.
SOLAS—The International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea 1974, as amended, adopted under the auspices of the IMO.
Special Survey—The inspection of a vessel by a classification society surveyor which takes place a minimum of every four years and a maximum of every five years.
Spot Market—The market for immediate chartering of a vessel usually for single voyages.
Supramax—A drybulk carrier ranging in size from approximately 50,000 to 60,000 dwt.
Technical Management—The management of the operation of a vessel, including physically maintaining the vessel and all of its machinery, maintaining necessary certifications, and supplying necessary stores, spares, and lubricating oils. Responsibilities also generally include selecting, engaging and training crew, and arranging necessary insurance coverage.
Time Charter—Contract for hire of a ship. A charter under which the shipowner is paid charter hire rate on a per day basis for a certain period of time, the shipowner being responsible for providing the crew and paying operating costs while the charterer is responsible for paying the voyage costs. Any delays at port or during the voyages are the responsibility of the charterer, save for certain specific exceptions such as loss of time arising from vessel breakdown and routine maintenance.
Ultramax—A drybulk carrier ranging in size from approximately 60,000 to 65,000 dwt.
Voyage Charter —Contract for hire of a vessel under which a shipowner is paid freight on the basis of moving cargo from a loading port to a discharge port. The shipowner is responsible for paying both operating costs and voyage costs. The charterer is typically responsible for any delay at the loading or discharging ports.
Voyage Expenses—Includes fuel, port charges, canal tolls, brokerage commissions and cargo handling operations. These expenses are subtracted from shipping revenues to calculate Time Charter Equivalent revenues for Voyage Charters.
Vessel Operating Expenses—Includes crewing, repairs and maintenance, insurance, stores, lubes, communication expenses.