Annual Survey— The inspection of a vessel by a classification society, on behalf of a flag state, that takes place every year.
Baltic Dry Index or BDI —The BDI is an index published by the Baltic Exchange which tracks worldwide international shipping prices of various drybulk cargoes. The index provides an assessment of the price for moving major raw materials by sea and is composed of 20 key shipping routes.
Baltic Exchange—Based in London, the Baltic Exchange is a market for the trading and settlement of shipping and freight contracts. The exchange publishes daily freight market prices and maritime shipping cost indices, including: Baltic Dry Index (BDI), Baltic Supramax Index (BSI), Baltic Panamax Index (BPI), Baltic Capesize Index (BCI), Baltic Tanker Dirty Index (BDTI), and Baltic Tanker Clean Index (BCTI).
Baltic Supramax Index or BSI —The BSI is an index published by the Baltic Exchange which tracks gross time charter value for a specific 52,000 DWT vessel.
Bareboat Charter—Also known as “demise charter." Contract or hire of a ship under which the ship owner is usually paid a fixed amount of charter hire rate for a certain period of time during which the charterer is responsible for the operating costs and voyage costs of the vessel as well as arranging for crewing.
Bulk Vessels/Carriers—Vessels which are specially designed and built to carry large volumes of cargo in bulk cargo form.
Bunkers—Heavy fuel oil used to power a vessel’s engines.
Capesize—A drybulk carrier in excess of 100,000 DWT.
Charter— The hire of a vessel for a specified period of time or to carry a cargo for a fixed fee from a loading port to a discharging port. The contract for a charter is called a charter party.
Charterer— The individual or company hiring a vessel.
Charter Hire Rate— A sum of money paid to the vessel owner by a charterer under a time charter party for the use of a vessel.
Classification Society—An independent organization which certifies that a vessel has been built and maintained in accordance with the rules of such organization and complies with the applicable rules and regulations of the country of such vessel and the international conventions of which that country is a member.
Contract of Affreightment or “COA”—An agreement providing for the transportation between specified points for a specific quantity of cargo over a specific time period but without designating specific vessels or voyage schedules, thereby allowing flexibility in scheduling since no vessel designation is required. COAs can either have a fixed rate or a market-related rate.
Deadweight Ton or “DWT"—A unit of a vessel’s capacity for cargo, fuel oil, stores and crew, measured in metric tons of 1,000 kilograms. A vessel’s DWT or total deadweight is the total weight the vessel can carry when loaded to a particular load line.
Demise Charter—See bareboat charter.
Demurrage—Additional revenue paid to the ship owner on its Voyage Charters for delays experienced in loading and/or unloading cargo that are not deemed to be the responsibility of the ship owner, calculated in accordance with specific Charter terms.
Despatch —The amount payable by the ship owner if the vessel completes loading or discharging before the laytime has expired, calculated in accordance with specific charter terms.
Draft—Vertical Distance between the waterline and the bottom of the vessel’s keel.
Drybulk—Non-liquid cargoes of commodities shipped in an unpackaged state.
Drydocking—The removal of a vessel from the water for inspection and/or repair of submerged parts.
Gross Ton—Unit of 100 cubic feet or 2.831 cubic meters used in arriving at the calculation of gross tonnage.
Handymax—A drybulk carrier of approximately 40,000 to 65,000 DWT.
Handysize—A drybulk carrier having a carrying capacity of up to approximately 39,000 DWT.
Hull—The shell or body of a vessel.
International Maritime Organization or “IMO"—A UN agency that issues international trade standards for shipping.
Intermediate Survey—The inspection of a vessel by a classification society surveyor which takes place between two and three years before and after each Special Survey for such vessel pursuant to the rules of international conventions and classification societies.
ISM Code—The International Management Code for the Safe Operation of Ships and for Pollution Prevention, as adopted by the IMO.
Metric Ton—A unit of measurement equal to 1,000 kilograms.
Light Weight Ton (“LWT") – The actual weight of the ship with no fuel, passengers, cargo, water or stores on board.
Newbuilding—A newly constructed vessel.
OPA—The United States Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (as amended).
Orderbook—A reference to currently placed orders for the construction of vessels (e.g., the Panamax orderbook).
Panamax—A drybulk carrier of approximately 60,000 to 100,000 DWT of maximum length, depth and draft capable of passing fully loaded through the Panama Canal.
Protection & Indemnity Insurance—Insurance obtained through a mutual association formed by ship owners to provide liability insurance protection from large financial loss to one member through contributions towards that loss by all members.
Scrapping—The disposal of old or damaged vessel tonnage by way of sale as scrap metal.
Short-Term Time Charter—A time charter which lasts less than approximately 12 months.
Sister Ships—Vessels of the same class and specification which were built by the same shipyard.
SOLAS—The International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea 1974, as amended, adopted under the auspices of the IMO.
Special Survey—The inspection of a vessel by a classification society surveyor which takes place a minimum of every four years and a maximum of every five years.
Spot Market—The market for immediate chartering of a vessel usually for single voyages.
Strict Liability—Liability that is imposed without regard to fault.
Supramax—A Handymax drybulk carrier ranging in size from approximately 50,000 to 59,000 DWT.
Technical Management—The management of the operation of a vessel, including physically maintaining the vessel, maintaining necessary certifications, and supplying necessary stores, spares, and lubricating oils. Responsibilities also generally include selecting, engaging and training crew, and arranging necessary insurance coverage.
Time Charter—Contract for hire of a ship. A charter under which the ship-owner is paid charter hire rate on a per day basis for a certain period of time, the ship owner being responsible for providing the crew and paying operating costs while the charterer is responsible for paying the voyage costs. Any delays at port or during the voyages are the responsibility of the charterer, save for certain specific exceptions such as loss of time arising from vessel breakdown and routine maintenance.
Ton —A metric ton, equal to 1,000 kilograms.
Ultramax – A Handymax drybulk carrier ranging in size from approximately 60,000 to 65,000 DWT.
Voyage Charter—Contract for hire of a vessel under which a ship owner is paid freight on the basis of moving cargo from a loading port to a discharge port. The ship owner is responsible for paying both operating costs and voyage costs. The charterer is typically responsible for any delay at the loading or discharging ports.
Voyage Expenses — Includes fuel, port charges, canal tolls, cargo handling operations and brokerage commissions paid by the Company under Voyage Charters. These expenses are subtracted from shipping revenues to calculate Time Charter Equivalent revenues for Voyage Charters.
Vessel expenses – Includes crewing, repairs and maintenance, insurance, stores, lubes, communication expenses.